By Klaus J Puettmann; K Dave Coates; Christian C Messier
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Extra resources for A critique of silviculture : managing for complexity
That foresters can effectively manage as a unit” (Nyland 2002, 2). Starting with the first human harvesting activities, logistical constraints (tree sizes and infrastructure) in conjunction with complex and diverse forest conditions commonly resulted in the cutting of dispersed trees (Hausrath 1982; Hasel 1985; Mantel 1990). If even-aged cohorts were present, harvesting was concentrated in small groups. Because of the great effort required for cutting the forest, harvesting was usually done as a direct response to a need for a specific wood product.
These conditions led to the first published discussion of wood supply sustainability (von Carlowitz 1713). They also led to the development and use of inventory and forest planning tools (Hartig 1795; Cotta 1817), which became widely adopted. The tools were so successful that inventory and planning (forest regulation) became a dominant field in Fachwerkverfahren: A forest management approach in which forests are divided into similar-sized management units. The goal of this division is to ensure a long-term supply of wood and stable age-class distributions (see Normalwald).
Among other reasons, this may simply reflect the very limited understanding of the ecology of forest ecosystems at the time. , Toumey 1928; Westveld 1939; editions of Hawley’s 1921 book) shifted incrementally to include an emphasis on scientific ecological understanding. For example, Daniel et al. (1979) emphasized the scientific basis for tree and stand growth. , Smith et al. 1997). The development of stand dynamics also highlighted silviculture becoming a global discipline, as it was the first major silvicultural concept that was initiated in North America and transferred back into the European literature (Otto 1994).