A History of Religion East and West: An Introduction and by Trevor Ling

By Trevor Ling

The spiritual traditions of Asia and Europe, the 'East' and 'West' of the name, are often considered as being in sharp distinction with one another, the single 'mystical', the opposite 'prophetic'. each time their religions should not so contrasted they're frequently handled in isolation from one another: the faith of Israel, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. Dr Ling, despite the fact that, stresses that there's significant overlap and interpenetration among the 2 kinds and components, and that you will need to see the old inter-relation among those religions and to watch how, in the course of given classes of historical past, there are parallel advancements or major divergences. He covers the interval 1500 B.C. to the current time, delivering an summary of the improvement of Asian and eu spiritual traditions and associations, and discussing the social and monetary components eager about the advance of religous traditions, even though he exhibits that such elements on my own don't account for the spiritual lifetime of guy. Dr Ling is going directly to interpret the modern value of those religions and their capability for the longer term lifetime of humanity. He means that the current degree of non secular strengthen is characterized by way of open-endedness in the direction of the longer term; no longer all religions show this personality, yet none has but exhausted the chances of improvement. This ebook is meant to be used an an advent to the learn of faith. even supposing reference is made within the textual content to assets of additional details, the ebook can be utilized regardless of them.

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The Mediterranean element is broadly represented by the Dravidian language-groups of South India. Mongolian stock is found largely in the north along the Himalayan foothills, but has spread into other areas as well. 31 Religiousfeatures ofpre-Aryan India What we know of the religious practices of the Indus valley civilisation provides a rough, rather indistinct picture from which we may possibly infer a little about the religion of the other parts of pre-Aryan India. The Indus valley civilisation was essentially urban; its one or two large cities determined the pattern of its life.

Found that there was a strong correlation between societies having a clearly identifiable hierarchical structure - that is, having three or more types of sovereign groups 6 Nomads, Peasants and Kings ranked in hierarchical order - and monotheistic beliefs. A summary of Swanson's fmdings is sufficient for our purpose here. A perfect correlation, that is, one in which monotheism was always found to occur in hierarchically-structured societies, and never in simplestructured societies, would be represented by a coefficient of + 1·0.

A result which showed the complete reverse of this, viz. that monotheism never occurs in hierarchically-structured societies, would be represented by a coefficient of -1·0. A complete absence of correlation one way or the other would be represented by the coefficient 0. On the basis of the fifty societies examined, the coefficient of contingency between hierarchically-structured societies and monotheistic beliefs was found to be + 0·81, a result which is near enough to the absolute of positive correlation ( + 1·0) to be very impressive.

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