By Robert I. Frost
The Swedish invasion of 1655, recognized to Poles ever on account that because the 'Swedish deluge', provoked the political and armed forces cave in of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second-largest nation in Europe. Robert Frost examines the explanations for Poland's fall and the behavior of the struggle through the Polish executive, and addresses the an important query of why, regardless of frequent reputation of the shortcomings of the political process, next makes an attempt at reform failed. battle has lengthy been obvious as the most important to the improvement of more suitable platforms of presidency in Europe in the course of the 17th century, yet experiences often be aware of states which spoke back effectively to the demanding situations. a lot should be realized from those who failed, and the paucity of English-language fabric in this vital clash implies that After the Deluge will attract a extensive viewers between historians of Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, Russia, and early sleek Europe typically.
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Extra resources for After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660
Apart from this large Orthodox minority, the Commonwealth also contained Armenian Christians, Jews and Moslem Tatars. The situation was further complicated by the spread of Protestantism: first Lutheranism among the German inhabitants of Royal Prussia, then Calvinism, Anabaptism and Antitrinitarianism 9 For the background to the revolt see F. L. ), Rethinking Ukrainian History (Edmonton, 1981) and T. Chynczewska-Hennel, 'The national consciousness of Ukrainian nobles and Cossacks from the end of the sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century' Harvard Ukrainian Studies 10 (1986).
W. Coxe, Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark. Interspersed with Historical Relations and Political Inquiries (London, 1784) p. 15. The saying 'Poland subsists by anarchy' (Polska nierzadem I6 stoi) had long been current within the Commonwealth. ibid. pp. 15, 121. 12 Introduction in Prussia, where he learnt much which he was later to apply on the battlefields of Germany. Before 1648, the Commonwealth's armies had proved perfectly capable of keeping up with the tactical changes of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
Cy winski, Dzieskc wiekow pieniqdza polskiego (Warsaw, 1987) p. 38. The Ian was a measure of land: for details see glossary. 13 The diet's position was strengthened by the political changes following the death of Sigismund Augustus in 1572, marking the triumph of the lower and middle nobility, which had seized the political initiative in the previous decade. Henceforward, not just the diet but the whole nobility had the right to participate in royal elections, a right nobles were only too eager to exercise, turning up in their thousands.