An Introduction to System Programming — Based on the PDP11 by Derrick Morris

By Derrick Morris

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If. however. there are further Instructions to be read a new tape can be placed In the reader and operation of CONT (or typing P) will restart the loader . Thus . a simple program written for the loader will have the form t address of the first Instruction (In octal> first Instruction (In octal> second Instruction (In octal> last Instruction (In octal> t Although the norm will be for each octal number to appear on a separate line. the loader given below will Ignore any sequence of characters , other than octal digits or t , between numbers.

Used with PC. Mode 2 with PC simply causes an operand to be selected from the store line whose address Is given by PC and PC Is Incremented by 2. However. when an Instruction containing this model register combination Is being executed . PC Is the address of the next 'Instruction' which Is therefore treated as a constant. Consider. for example. the Instruction 062702 000005 which achieves the action R2 <= R2 + 5 and Is In effect a 32-blt Instruction . This mode with PC Is called Immediate mode.

First. after the operand address has been evaluated . the value of the program counter (PC) Is stacked. It wil l at this time be the address of the next Instruction and the stacked copy Is called a 'link' . Next the program counter Is reset to the address of the operand . Thus If the Instruction 004737 002000 was In store lines 1000 and 1002, Its execution would ba aqulvalenl 10 the two Instructions 012746 001004 012707 002000 -[SP)<=1004 PC<=2000 It should now be obvious that the Instruction required at the end of the subroutine must perform the action PC<=[SP)+ .

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