By David Kealey, P J Haines
Speedy Notes titles concentrate on center details and are designed to aid undergraduate scholars come to grips with a topic speedy and easily.Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry presents scholars with an intensive comprehension of analytical chemistry and its purposes. This ebook helps the training of rules and perform of analytical techniques. It additionally comprises analytical strategies regularly occurring in laboratories this present day.
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Additional resources for BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry
Xk, are the means for each of the k sets. Variance The square of the standard deviation, s2, or estimated standard deviation, s2, is used in a number of statistical computations and tests, such as for calculating accumulated (propagated) errors (Topic B1 and below) or when comparing the precisions of two sets of data (Topic B3). Overall precision Random errors accumulated within an analytical procedure contribute to the overall precision. e. soverall = ͙s 2 2 2ෆ ෆ ෆ 1 + s2 + s3 + . . Example In a titrimetric procedure, the buret must be read twice, and the error associated with each reading must be taken into account in estimating the overall precision.
Method or procedural errors are caused by inadequate method validation, the application of a method to samples or concentration levels for which it is not suitable or unexpected variations in sample characteristics that affect measurements. Determinate errors that lead to a higher value or result than a true or accepted one are said to show a positive bias; those leading to a lower value or result are said to show a negative bias. Particularly large errors are described as gross errors; these should be easily apparent and readily eliminated.
Because the two levels of pseudoephedrine differ considerably, equation (3) for a paired t-test is used to calculate texptl. 706 mg per dose. 57. As texptl is greater than ttab, there is a signiﬁcant difference between the means of the two methods. ) Example 3 A method for the determination of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry gave values of 400, 385 and 382 ppm for a standard known to contain 400 ppm. Does the mean value differ signiﬁcantly from the true value, or is there any evidence of systematic error (bias)?
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