By Roger T Beckwith
This article offers with numerous difficult difficulties in Jewish and early Christian suggestion and perform, in the normal parts of the calendar and chronology. New difficulties are tackled, and previous difficulties are reconsidered. the recent difficulties are intertestamental, and contain the Qumran calendar, the levels within the improvement of Judaism among the Testaments, and many of the chronologies utilized in early Judaism to degree prior and destiny time. those chapters are frequently of Jewish curiosity, even though the last-mentioned has a Christian bearing additionally, centering because it does on messianic expectation. The previous difficulties all have a Christian bearing, and are biblical or patristic, notwithstanding illustrated the following via intertestamental proof. They comprise the connection among the Sabbath and Sunday, the date of the crucifixion, the starting place of Easter and Whitsun, and the date of Christmas.
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Extra info for Calendar and Chronology, Jewish and Christian: Biblical, Intertestamental and Patristic Studies (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums)
Divorced from their contexts of gathering the manna and trade. The rabbis pressed these texts to mean that no one must for any purpose leave his city or carry anything out of his house. Christ may well have rejected these interpretations altogether, as he would certainly have rejected the evasion o f the erub by which the rabbis attempted to mitigate the rigour of their own exegesis. To all this, the reply might be made that occasionally, as in Matt. , Jesus speaks directly of the Christian way to observe the ceremonial Law (though it is so soon to pass away), and that his teaching on the Sabbath could be a similar case.
Where the Temple takes precedence over the Sabbath, yet even the Temple is being fulfilled and replaced. The inference is that the same is true of the Sabbath. But what is in view here is not, as in Mark 2:27, the Sabbath in its primeval form, but the Sabbath in its Mosaic form, with its appointed sacrifices and its rigid restrictions on work. It is the appointed sacrifices that take precedence over the rigid restrictions during the Mosaic period. This form of the Sabbath was indeed being fulfilled and replaced through the ministry of Christ.
10:11; Deut. 17:11; 24:8; 33:10; Neh. 8:7-9; Ezek. 7:26; 44:23; Hos. 4:6; Mic. 3:11; Hag. 2:11; Mai. 2:5-7), and the great forerunner of the lay "scribes", who later taught in the synagogues, was Ezra the priest (Ezra 7:16, I If, 21; Neh. 8:9; 12:26). Their teaching could be given any day, but there was greater freedom to receive it on the Sabbath. Thus, according to this developed understanding, the day which the Lord had "blessed" and "sanctified" in the beginning (Gen. 2:3) was sanctified to be a day of worship as well as rest, and conferred the blessing of teaching as well as rest.
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